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Fleece to Fabric - The Process

Welsh Wool - Fleece to Fabric

Fleece to fabric - it all begins with the wool of a sheep
Fleece to Fabric - It all begins with the fleece of a sheep

 

Wales is famous for its wool industry, its blankets and throws, including the iconic Welsh tapestry blankets. The Welsh wool industry is showcased at the National Wool Museum of Wales, in Drefach Felindre, Carmarthenshire. Today traditionally woven Welsh wool blankets and throws are very popular not only in the UK but also across the world and are supported by national and international campaigns such as the Campaign for Wool. Sustainability has become an important issue for consumers and wool is the natural source of sustainable materials. Each year, sheep produce a new fleece making yarn a 100% renewable fibre source. Wool is a 100% natural fibre and has evolved to become one of the most effective natural forms of all-weather protection known to man.

We’ve all seen a wool fleece but they are usually on the back of a live sheep walking around the fields! So how does a wet and maybe dirty fleece get to a cosy, warm, clean fabric suitable for us at FelinFach.

Fleece to Fabric

Introduction

On the farms in rural Wales, sheep shearing was the social highlight of the year. Sheep were sheared in one piece and prepared for the mills. The sorting process was vital as different sheep produce different quality of wool, resulting in different produce like clothing, carpets and blankets, while the quality of wool varies depending on the part of the sheep’s body it comes from.

Shearing

Firstly usually before the summer months, sheep shearing is the process of cutting off the fleece from the sheep. The fleeces of sheep can look very different and this leads to the various fleeces being used for different products. Some fleeces are coarse and these are suitable for carpet making whereas finer wool is used for clothing and the types of products we make at FelinFach. The finest wool is called merino wool. The diameter and the crimp of the fleece determine the use of wool. The crimp is the waviness of the fibre and is different from breed to breed. With merino wool, it’s very fine but the crimp in crossbred wool is several millimetres long.

Sheep after the shearing process with a short 'haircut'

Scouring 

Having sheared the sheep and sorted the fleeces, the wool is now cleaned, or scoured. The wool that comes straight from a sheep is often greasy and can contain high levels of valuable lanolin as well as dirt, dead skin, sweat residue, pesticide, and vegetable matter. Scouring may be as simple as a bath in warm water, or as complicated as an industrial process using detergents. It is rumoured that until the 1930’s, some of the larger mills in Wales scoured the wool by immersing the raw wool in a solution consisting of one part human urine, one part water! This process no longer continues!

Carding and Spinning

Carding is a set of processes that converts a tangled mass of scoured wool into fully disentangled, soft rolls of wool for spinning into yarn. Originally done by hand, a carding engine was invented in the 18th century. Spinning pulls and twists the fibres together to form a continuous thread, turning the soft rolls into strong woollen yarn, originally by using a portable spindle and whorl.

Warping and Weaving

Warping by hand is a complicated process with all the threads for the warp of a piece of cloth placed in the correct order and colour sequence, before weaving. Weaving turns the yarn into cloth, which is made of two sets of threads. The warp thread sit side by side, and the weft threads are woven under and over the warp.

4. FelinFach Welsh Blankets

Welsh Blankets and Throws

We have a large collection of Welsh blankets ranging from the iconic Welsh Tapestry Blankets to smaller more contemporary throws and knee rugs. Our beautiful, soft and cosy traditional Welsh blankets are hand woven from 100% new wool. They are a fantastic source of warmth and comfort. These wool blankets vary in design, size and weight from heavyweight double weave reversible blankets to the traditional honeycomb (or waffle) weave blankets and knee rugs. All our blankets and throws for sale are made from British wool and are not vintage or used or second-hand blankets.

Welsh Blankets - Hand woven in limited numbers Welsh Blankets - Hand woven in Wales Welsh Blankets - Hand woven in Drefach Wales Welsh blankets - hand woven in limited numbers - Blaenffos

Wool throws - hand woven in Wales Wool throws - Hand woven in Ceredigion Wales Wool Throws in modern colours Wool throws, hand woven in limited numbers

About FelinFach

Our company, FelinFach Natural Textiles is located in the heart of the Preseli area of Pembrokeshire near to Boncath. We design Welsh blankets and the iconic Welsh Tapestry blankets which are traditionally woven at Welsh mills. We also design and make natural hand dyed yarn, cotton, silk and wool scarves and other handmade products, all available in our yarn store. We also offer Welsh tartans, Sheepskin Rugs, Gift Cards and tools and books for crafters and knitters - Cocoknits, Laine, Amirisu and Making to name a few! Lastly, craft workshops on hand dyeing with 100% natural dyes in the purpose designed FelinFach Dye Studio. We are a proud supporter of the Campaign for Wool, All Things Wales and Global Welsh.

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Last update 23rd March 2022